Read Online in English
Table of Content
Preface and Contents


General FAQ

  • When is kidney biopsy advised?
    In certain kidney diseases detailed medical history, examination and tests are unable to establish proper diagnosis. In such patients a kidney biopsy may be the only test which can clinch the exact diagnosis. Read More

FAQ - Chronic Kidney Disease

  • What are the causes of chronic kidney disease?
    The two most important causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. Other important causes are glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, ageing of the kidneys, renal artery stenosis, blockages to the flow of urine, drug-induced kidney damage, recurrent kidney infection in children and reflux nephropathy. Read More
  • How to diagnose chronic kidney disease?
    Three simple screening tests for the CKD are blood pressure measurement, urine test for albumin and serum creatinine blood test. Low hemoglobin, presence of protein in urine, raised value of creatinine and eGFR in blood test and small and contracted kidneys, seen on ultrasound, are the major diagnostic clues of chronic kidney disease. Read More
  • How is anemia in CKD treated?
    Supplementing iron and vitamins is the first step to treat anemia due to CKD. Severe anemia, or anemia not responding to drug therapy, needs injections of synthetic erythropoietin. Erythropoietin injection is safe, effective and the most preferred method of treating anemia due to CKD. Read More

FAQ - Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Why must patients of CKD take precautions in fluid intake?
    As the kidney functions worsen in patients with CKD, the volume of urine usually decreases. Reduced urine output leads to water retention, causing puffiness of the face, swelling of the legs and high blood pressure. Accumulation of fluid in the lungs causes shortness of breath. Inadequately treated, severe breathlessness can be fatal. To avoid these problems, fluid restriction is advised in patients of CKD with swelling. Read More
  • Why are CKD patients advised to restrict potassium in diet?
    Removal of excess potassium in the urine may be inadequate in patients with chronic kidney disease, which can lead to high level of potassium in the blood (hyperkalemia). High potassium levels can cause severe muscle weakness or an irregular heart rhythm which can be dangerous. When potassium is very high, the heart can stop beating unexpectedly and cause sudden death. To avoid serious consequences of high potassium, CKD patients are advised to restrict potassium in diet. Read More

FAQ - Dialysis

  • What is CAPD?
    Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is a widely accepted and effective modality for the patients with end stage kidney disease. CAPD can be carried out by a person at home without the use of a machine. As CAPD provides convenience and independence it’s a popular dialysis modality in developed countries. Read More
  • How is CAPD done?
    Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is done at home, usually without a machine. In CAPD a soft tube called a catheter is inserted in the abdomen. Through the catheter, dialysis solution is infused into the abdominal cavity. Dialysis fluid (dialysate) remains in the peritoneal cavity for hours (dwell time), during which process of purification occurs. Subsequently, PD fluid with waste products and excess fluid is drained out through the catheter. Read More

FAQ - Kidney Transplantation

FAQ - Diabetic Kidney Disease

  • What are the common symptoms of diabetic kidney diseases?
    Common symptoms of diabetic kidney disease are the presence of protein in the urine, development of high blood pressure, swelling of the ankles, feet and face, decreased requirement of insulin or antidiabetic medications and frequent hypoglycemia (low sugar level). Read More

FAQ - Polycystic Kidney Disease

  • How is PKD diagnosed?
    Ultrasound of the kidneys is a most commonly used diagnostic test for PKD. However, CT or MRI scan of the kidneys are more precise, although expensive. Read More

FAQ - Living with a Single Kidney

  • What precautions should a person with a single kidney take?
    Important precautions to protect the solitary kidney are drinking a lot of water, avoiding contact sports which carry risk of injury to the solitary kidney and informing the doctor about the single kidney before any abdominal surgerybefore any abdominal surgery inform the doctor that you have a single kidney. Read More

FAQ - Stone Disease

  • Can kidney stones damage the kidney?
    Yes. Stones in the kidney or ureter can block or obstruct the flow of urine within the urinary tract. Such obstruction can cause dilatation of kidney. Persistent severe dilatation due to blockage can cause kidney damage. Read More

FAQ - Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

  • How to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia?
    Medical treatment is effective in majority of elderly male with mild to moderate symptoms of BPH. While surgical treatment is necessary in people with BPH with bothersome, moderate to severe symptoms refractory to medical treatment. Read More

FAQ -Urinary Tract Infection in Children

  • What is Voiding Cystourethrogram test used in children with urine tract infection?
    Voiding cystourethrogram - VCUG (previously known as Micturating cystourethrogram - MCU) test is most often needed in the evaluation of urinary tract infection in children. In this special X ray test, the bladder is filled with contrast medium through catheter under sterile precautions. After the bladder is filled, catheter is removed and the patient is asked to pass urine. X rays taken at intervals during urination show outline of the bladder and urethra. This test is helpful to diagnose backflow of urine into the ureters and kidneys (known as vesicoureteral reflux) and the structural abnormalities of urinary bladder and urethra. Read More

FAQ - Bedwetting

  • Is bedwetting a serious problem in children?
    No. Bedwetting is very common especially under the age of 6 years. But/However investigations and treatment are necessary if bedwetting continues after the age of seven or eight years, if bedwetting occurs during the day time or if the child has fever, pain, burning and frequent urination. Read More